Location Update

At the end of October I will no longer occupy my wikiup office.

Appointments with me can be made at the Airport Health Club or the Fountaingrove Golf & Athletic Club.

You may schedule online at the airport health club (see above link) or at my other locations by texting me, emailing me (see contact form), or calling.

Cumulative Trauma Disorders – Why do I have Painful Muscles?

Cumulative Trauma Disorder is the affect that acute injury, repetitive trauma, and constant pressure or tension has on nerves, muscles, and bones. This affect is best understood in the terms of a cycle the Cumulative Injury Cycle. This cycle separates cumulative-trauma disorder from other injuries.

Injury Types

  • Acute Injury – Muscle and fascial tearing from an acute injury causes immediate inflammation and white blood cell proliferation, fibroinogen secretion, and adhesion formation start. If not treated correctly, the cumulative-injury cycle begins.
  • Repetitive Motion Injury – Repetitive-motion injury is a function of specific physical factors that can be measured. To understand how repetitive-motion injuries occur it is helpful to review the model of repetitive motion. This model isn’t linear or exact, but proportional.

I = NF / AR

Model of Repetitive Motion

I = Insult to the tissues
N = Number of repetitions
F = Force or tension of each repetition as a percent of maximum muscle strength
A = Amplitude of each repetition
R = Relaxation time between repetitions (lack of pressure or tension on the tissue involved)

Examples
Vibration results in high Number of repetitions with low Amplitude and low Relaxation time, causing high Insult. Poor, static posture produces high Force with nearly zero Amplitude and Relaxation time, causing high Insult. Someone who is weak will use a high percentage of their maximal strength to accomplish tasks, causing high Force and high Insult.

Constant Pressure/Tension Injury
These two factors decrease circulation and compromise cell recovery. Three major results are cellular retention of calcium, poor repair, and altered function. This injury type, by definition, does not require motion. An isometric contraction, or muscle tension of poor posture are good examples of the mechanism of injury.

The Cumulative Injury Cycle
The cyclic nature of injury — one factor triggering the next in a circular series — has been described for many years. The components of the cycle are defined as follows:

  • Weak And Tight Tissues – Repetitive effort, for example, tends to make muscles tighten. A tight muscle tends to weaken; a weak muscle tends to tighten. And on it goes.
  • Friction — Pressure —Tension – As a result of weak and tight tissues, internal forces rise. Friction, pressure, or tension can be present at the same time. If one or more of these factors is high, an acute injury and inflammation can result – even without external forces being applied.
  • Decreased Circulation – Edema – The affect of increased forces on the tissues is decreased circulation. If pressure is applied over one of the vulnerable, low-pressure lymphatic channels, the result is edema. External forces – in the form of a constant-pressure or tension injury – may also decrease circulation or cause edema.
  • Adhesion — Fibrosis – Cellular hypoxia, from restricted circulation, causes fibrosis and adhesions to occur in and between tissues. When the friction-pressure-tension factor is severe, or when an acute injury occurs, two additional factors come into play.
  • Tear or Crush – The physical disruption of the tissues — microscopic or macroscopic — can occur with sufficient force. This can be an external force, acute injury, or it can result internally.
  • Inflammation – This results from the injury and starts the adhesion process. The cycle progresses then to the “weak-and-tense” phase. There are many extrinsic factors which affect the cycle, but, they do it in predictable ways. Smoking, for example, tends to decrease ciculation, helping to perpetuate the cycle. Diabetes has a similar affect. Thyroid deficits tend to increase tension in the musculature and therefore influence the “weak-and-tense” factor of the cumulative-injury cycle. Hormonoal changes as with hysterectomy, excessive body weight, and pregnancy — lead to predictable alterations to the involved factors. The cumulative injury cycle is defined with two possible routes: the inflammatory cycle and the chronic cycle. Each is independent of the other, however, they both may be present together.
  • Conditions – The cumulative-injury cycle is self-perpetuating. It worsens the symptoms and syndromes of cumulative-trauma disorders with a downward-sprial effect. These include carpal tunnel and cubital-tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis, tenosynovitis, myofascitis, bursitis, peripheral-nerve entrapment, thoracic-outlet syndrome, Dr Quervain’s disease. None of these conditions are a cumulative-trauma disorder without the affects fo the cumulative -injury cycle.

 

Source: http://www.solsantacruz.com/Cumulative-Trauma-Disorder-Defined.pdf

Understanding Muscular Dysfunction

The more I learn about the human body, the more I see that everything to do with healthy movement is centered around the brain.

Don’t get me wrong – this doesn’t mean that in order to fix movement problems we have to open up the skull, quite the contrary. The way to solve motor problems is to fix the broken communication between muscles and the brain. In fact, there are many aspects of motor control that resemble control systems from my engineering background. [Read more…]